Resources for practicing the 16 exercises of mindful breathing

Dear friends,

The 16 mindful breathing exercises are at the heart of the teachings offered by Zen Master Thich Nhat Hanh and the global Plum Village community. These exercises are ancient, systematic guides for sitting meditation and mindfulness of breathing according to the Buddha’s teaching in the Anapanasati Sutra.

The amount of questions we receive on this subject suggests that there may be as many ways to practice these exercises as there are people practicing them. Since there are already several relevant resources available on the Plum Village App and in the wider Plum Village community, below we have shared some answers to these questions. These range from explanations through song to in-depth long-form podcast episodes and Thich Nhat Hanh’s own video-recorded teachings on the topic for both beginners and experienced practitioners.

The Way Out Is In podcast: ‘The Heart of Meditation’ 

The entirety of this special two-part installment comprises a practical guide for those interested in the 16 exercises. Zen Buddhist monk Brother Phap Huu and leadership coach/journalist Jo Confino, along with frequent guest Sister True Dedication (Sister Hien Nghiem), explain and break down the individual exercises over almost four-hours (divided into Part One and Part Two). 

Practice sheet from Sister True Dedication’s private archive. Published with permission.

The episodes also include the exercises’ traditional texts, revised versions, variations, and adaptations, with extensive explanations given by the two monastics about how to apply each one to our daily lives. In addition, stories are shared about Thich Nhat Hanh practicing meditation, and the concrete steps taken and challenges faced over time by both Brother Phap Huu and Sister True Dedication in relation to their personal practice. 

Breathe, You Are Alive! The Sutra on the Full Awareness of Breathing 

For those who would rather read about the topic, this book by Thich Nhat Hanh outlines the 16 exercises of conscious breathing as they were taught by the Buddha, together with commentaries and further exercises for practicing them every day and in any situation.

“Thich Nhat Hanh’s insights and explanation give the reader access to the profound nourishment available when we slow down and get in touch with our in-breath and out-breath. He walks the reader through the progression of exercises—from awareness of the physical plane, to the mental and spiritual planes—in a clear and concise manner that is easy to implement.”

Sixteen Steps of Mindful Breathing – Talk by Thich Nhat Hanh

This most recent addition to the Plum Village App (and the app’s YouTube channel) – an excerpt from a Dharma Talk given during the August 2013 Mindfulness Retreat for Educators – covers all 16 exercises, as explained by Thich Nhat Hanh. 

Other resources:

‘The First Eight Exercises of Mindful Breathing’ 

This edited transcript of one of Thich Nhat Hanh’s talks, from a Mindfulness Retreat for Educators in August 2013, focuses on the first eight exercises, and was published on our blog in 2021. You can also watch Thay’s original talk on the Plum Village App or the App’s YouTube channel. 

‘The 16 Exercises of Mindful Breathing’ – a song by the Plum Village monastic sisters 

For those who would prefer to learn through music, this song by Sister Trang Hieu Duc should help. With words from the ‘Discourse on the Full Awareness of Breathing’ sutra (Anapanasati Sutta, MN 118), it was performed by sisters from Plum Village. Enjoy!


☁️ As has been the case with Buddhist teachings for millennia, there is no charge for the Plum Village App and its digital content. However, if your means allow, please consider offering a donation to support our small team’s continued work on the app.


  1. Thank you so much Plum Village for all of your wonderful offerings. You have helped me so much over the past two years. I have nothing but gratitude and respect and true wonder l for your teachings and meditations.
    I am so sorry I have not been able to donate yet, the moment I am able to I will-joyfully- though it may only be a tiny amount.
    With love and deep gratitude,
    Stephie Drown.

  2. Dear Plum Village.Gratitude Love and respect for your Presence.. Please accept my humble donation.. Thank you Blessed Community..

  3. Synchronicity: Just as you’ve made these studies of the 16 steps so clearly available; my Sangha here in North Carolina is focused on practicing with Thay’s book, Old Path, White Clouds.
    Thank you so much for your good works, especially for valuable, contemporary offerings that are free and easily accessible!
    I already support the Plum Village App. with a monthly contribution; but the discovery of Thay’s Mindful Breathing video to educators is priceless.
    Please accept this humble donation. I wish it could be more.
    🙏🏼 C

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